chat loading...
Skip to Main Content

Research & Writing: Design Discipline Writing

Help with writing and conducting research, including resources for starting your research

Data Visualization

When creating data visualizations, make sure to integrate your visualizations with the textual analysis to avoid a "slideshow effect." Other things to keep in mind:

  • Include annotations to help viewers understand the data
  • Avoid 3D imagery when 2D would work
  • Start bar and column charts at zero
  • Make labels easy to read
  • Smaller, more numerous charts are preferable if the information overwhelms one chart
  • Make sure any maps used actually prove the geographic point you want to make
  • Remember who your audience is and their familiarity with the topic

For more tips, see Core Principles of Data Visualization.


After conducting research to develop an understanding of your user base, you will need to create personas. Use the following process to structure the personas:

  • Refine them
    • Combine and prioritize rough personas
    • Separate them into primary, secondary, and complementary (if needed)
  • Make them realistic
    • Develop background, motivations, and expectations
    • Don't include too much personal information

Your final result should be roughly three to five personas with individual, identified characteristics. For more information, see the source of this information -

College for Creative Studies website